What You Should Know About the Nigerian Government

What You Should Know About the Nigerian Government

As the 2024 Nigerian General Elections approach, we thought we’d gather and share some information about the Federal Republic of Nigeria and its government. This comprehensive article should assist government students in revising their knowledge of the Nigerian government. It should also provide voters with a quick overview of the Nigerian government’s overall structure.

Introducing the Federal Republic and Government of Nigeria

The federal government of Nigeria is divided into three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are endowed by the Nigerian Constitution. in the National Assembly, the President, and the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively,

Nigeria is a federal republic, with the president wielding executive power. The president serves as both the head of state and the head of government in a multi-party system. Nigerian politics take place within the framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic in which the government exercises executive power. The real government and the two chambers of the legislature, the House of Representatives and the Senate, hold legislative power.

The two chambers form Nigeria’s law-making body, known as the National Assembly, which serves as a check on the executive branch of government. The Supreme Court of Nigeria is the highest judicial arm of government in Nigeria. It was established after independence and follows Baron de Montesquieu’s theory of separation of powers based on the United States system, and also practises checks and balances.

Form of Government

Nigeria has a democracy as its form of government. A democracy is a form of government that strives to give all citizens, regardless of socioeconomic status, an equal voice, or vote, in determining state policy. Another critical tenet of the democratic state is the creation and administration of a just and comprehensive constitution that defines the roles and responsibilities of leaders and citizens alike.

Although Nigeria promotes democracy, it is not a “pure” democracy. All citizens in a purely democratic society would vote on all proposed legislation, but this is not how laws are passed in Nigeria. There is a practical reason for this: implementing a pure democracy would be difficult. Thus, Nigeria is a federal republic based on a constitution in which citizens elect representatives to make policy decisions on their behalf.

The term representative democracy, which is nearly synonymous with republic, can also be used to describe a government in which citizens elect representatives to advocate for policies that benefit them. Local and state representatives are elected in Nigeria.

On the federal level, Nigeria elects a head of state (the President of Nigeria) and a legislature (the National Assembly). The people choose the president. The National Assembly is divided into two chambers. The House of Representatives has 360 members who are elected to four-year terms in single-seat districts. The Senate has 109 members who are elected for four-year terms: each of the 36 states is divided into three senatorial districts, each of which has one senator; the Federal Capital Territory has only one senator.

Muhammadu Buhari, the current President of Nigeria, took office as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on May 29, 2015. The outcome of the Nigerian General Election in 2024 will determine who will be the next president.

Arms of Government

The Executive

The executive’s primary function is to enforce laws and maintain law and order in the state. The chief executive makes all major appointments. The president is chosen by universal suffrage. He or she is both the chief of state and the head of government, presiding over the Federal Executive Council, also known as the cabinet. The executive branch is divided into Federal Ministries, each of which is led by a minister chosen by the president. The president’s cabinet must include at least one representative from each of the 36 states. The Senate of Nigeria confirms the President’s appointments.

Seal of the President

The Legislature

The primary function of a legislature is to legislate, or make laws. The Federal Republic of Nigeria’s National Assembly is a bicameral legislature established by Section 4 of the Nigerian Constitution. It is made up of a Senate of 109 members and a House of Representatives of 360 members. A bicameral legislature is simply a body of government made up of two legislative houses or chambers.

Nigeria’s National Assembly Building

The Judiciary

The judiciary, also known as the judicial system, is a system of courts that administer justice on behalf of the sovereign or state. The Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Court of Appeals, the High Courts, and other trial courts such as Magistrates’, Customary, Sharia, and other specialized courts comprise the judicial branch of the Nigerian Federal Government. The National Judicial Council functions as an independent executive body that protects the judiciary from the executive branch of government.

System of Government

Nigeria’s government system is based on federalism. A federal government is a system of power sharing between a central national government and local state governments that are linked by the national government. Some aspects of public life are controlled by the national government, while others are controlled by local governments. Federal government systems typically have a constitution that specifies which areas of public life are under the control of the national government and which are under the control of state governments.

Type of Constitution

A constitution is a legal document that defines and regulate a country’s laws. Any constitution serves a specific purpose for a country at a specific time. A written or unwritten constitution can exist. A written constitution is a type of document or documents containing laws. Constitutions are typically very precise and systematic. This constitution was usually defined as a deliberate effort by the people. This legal body is chosen to be the primary legal document for a given period of history. Nigeria is governed by a written constitution.

The Nigerian Constitution was derived from a number of sources. Some of these sources include adopted England laws, cultures of various ethnic groups, and legislation enacted by the government’s legislative arm.

Rights of Nigerian Citizens

Every Nigerian has rights, duties, liabilities, and privileges that are outlined in the country’s hundreds of laws. However, certain rights essentially supersede all others. They are rights known as inalienable rights, for which the law has made specific and special provision. Nigerian citizens have the following fundamental rights:

  • Right to life
  • Right to dignity
  • Right to personal liberty
  • Right to fair hearing
  • Right to privacy
  • Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
  • Right to freedom of expression
  • Right to freedom of assembly and association
  • Right to freedom of movement
  • Right to freedom from discrimination
  • Right to own property

The Nigerian Electoral System

An electoral system is a method by which citizens of a country elect their presidents, governments, or other administrative or political officials to oversee the nation’s affairs.  Every time an election is held in Nigeria, a specialized committee is in charge of the elections. This committee organizes the pre-election run, monitors all conditions during this time, and prepares everything needed for the voting process, among other things. The current committee in charge of overseeing electoral processes in Nigeria is the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). INEC organizes the pre-election campaign, monitors all conditions during this time, and prepares everything for voting, among other things.

Nigerian Electoral System

The secret ballot is a voting system in which votes are cast in secret. The secret ballot is used in the majority of democratic countries. A ballot is a piece of paper that contains the candidates from each political party running for a specific electoral position and on which the elector votes. The voter enters the ballot booth alone to vote for their preferred candidate and drops his ballot paper into the ballot box under the secret ballot system. The secret ballot is used to protect voters from potential persecution and intimidation. Furthermore, no one knows the specific candidate for whom the voter votes except the voter.

The actual voting takes place on a specific day and time, for example, from 7 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. on a specific date. Each eligible voter must vote within the specified time frame. After the voting is completed, the ballot boxes are carried to the counting center and counted immediately, and the Returning Officer announces the election results immediately after the counting.

The Party System

A party system is a concept that refers to a democratic country’s system of government by political parties. The idea is that political parties share fundamental characteristics: they control the government, have a stable base of mass popular support, and establish internal mechanisms for controlling funding, information, and nominations.

A political party is an organization or group of people who share common political beliefs. It is usually a collaboration of like-minded individuals who work together to achieve their political objectives. It could be to gain control of the government, compete in elections, promote political ideas, and so on. Members of the same political party should work toward a common goal.

In a democratic country, one of the primary roles of any political party is to provide freedom of expression. A country should allow its citizens to vote or be voted for. Another exclusive role for a political party is that of a citizen representative. Any political party is managed in accordance with the needs of the citizens of the country.

Nigeria follows a multi-party system. In such a system, three or more parties have the ability to control the government either separately or as part of a coalition. The People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressives Congress (APC) are the two major political parties . Other active but less prominent political parties exist. In fact, Nigeria currently has 91 registered political parties.